What is Operating System?
An Operating System (OS) is a system software in which computer software manages and controls the computer hardware so that application software can perform a task. It loaded after the computer starts. It is very important to boot your computer like system software or files that are needed to boot up. It is also necessary to run another application software and utility software. Every computer, tablet, and the smartphone has its own operating system in which it can provide basic features for the device.
Some of the Operating Systems: –
1. Microsoft Windows
3. Apple macOS
4. Apple iOS
Types of functions of a Operating system
There are the list of some important functions of a Operating system
1. Memory Management: – Memory management refers to the main memory. It keeps complete information on the main memory and searches the location at which the memory is used by which program, when a program wants to collect information it allocates memory to it.
2. Processor Management: – In this Operating system decides which program allocates to the processor and which program deallocates the program when it runs out of the CPU.
3. Device Management: – The operating system keeps all the devices responsible for the task. This also known as I/O controller and the operating system decides which device communicates which program, when, and how long for.
4. File Management: – It manages the file system in an organized way into its directories files which it easily navigates and uses. It simply allocates and deallocates the resources and decides which program has to be delivered.
5. Security: – In this any important program or data is protected from unauthorized access, using passwords and other technologies.
6. Control over system performance: – It record the complete health of the system.
7. Job accounting: – The Operating system keeps track of an account system and resources used for various jobs and users to track accurate data of resources.
8. Error detecting aids: – The Operating system detect the error of a system and prevent from other malfunctioning of computer system.
9. Coordination between other software and users: – For working of a operating system coordination of a system is very important so due to this method its coordinate and assign, interpreters, compilers, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.
Types of operating system
There are the list of important operating system.
- Batch operating system
- Network operating system
- Distributed operating system
- Multiprocessor operating system
- Multitasking operating system
- Real-Time operating system
1.Batch operating system: – At that time batch operating system does not allow to interact directly with the users. Because in this operating system a batch of similar type of jobs is made and that batch is stored in the form of punch card and that punch card is given to the operator and that operator gives the punch card to the computer for processing and the computer then completes the jobs in one by one order from that punch card. The main problem of this operating system was that it could not interact with the user directly.
2. Network operating system: – The network operating system is a type of system in which operating system run on a server. The main goal of the network operating system is to share file and devices access among many computers in network, basically on a local area network (LAN), to a private network or to other networks.
3. Distributed operating system: – The distributed operating system is a system in which it stores the data and distributes it to multiple network. The distributed operating system uses multiple CPU and this data processing jobs are distributed between these processors. This means that the central processor is anything like a computer or any site. They connected to each other via communication network.
4. Multiprocessor operating system: – In this operating system is used in places where more than one processor is engaged in the system. The technique of using more than one processor is called parallel processing.
5.Multitasking operating system: – Multiple tasks are performed in the multitasking operating system at the same time. In fact, the processor very quickly provides different processing time, which is called CPU scheduling. This task happens so fast that the user seems to be doing all the tasks simultaneously.
6. Real Time operating system: – The real-time operating system is also known as data processing systems, they have a predetermined time for executing an event called response time. It is mainly use in Space craft, Railway ticket booking.
- Hard Real-Time operating system: – It is an operating system that guarantees the completion of any sensitive tasks in a fixed time.
- Soft Real-Time operating system: – They are usually less punctual than hard real-time systems but they give priority to sensitive tasks over all other tasks.