January 11, 2021

What is CPU? How does it work?



The CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. It also known as Processor, Microprocessor, and Central Processor. CPU is the brain of a computer. It has a small integrated circuit within a computer that executes the instructions that received from a computer program and gives final results to the user. The CPU manages the information and instructions obtained from all of the hardware, applications, users, and input devices to the computer. It stored OS (Operating System) and all types of applications.  It also known as brain of a computer. CPU is placed in the motherboard which can be seen inside the CPU fan. And other parts like ALU, Registers, and FPU are also placed inside it.

Parts of a CPU

There are three type of major part of CPU which accomplishes its task. Whose names are given bellows.

  1.  Registers
  2. Control Unit
  3. ALU (Arithmetical Logical Unit)
  1.  Registers: –  A group of memory cells, which stores a word, is called Register. Hence many binary cells connected to each other, then make a register. A CPU can use a register for internal data processing. These registers are used to hold information on a temporary basis, and one part of the CPU (Not main memory).
  • Control Unit: –  The control unit does processing of the data; it acts as central nerves system for the other components of the computer. The Control Unit give command to the memory, logical gates, input and output devices that how to follow the instructions that was received by program. Control unit decodes or translate each instruction. It controls all the operation of the CPU. Based on the desired operation, the control unit generates enable signals for the ALU and other elements in the system to complete the task.
  •  ALU (Arithmetical Logical Unit): – The ALU of the CPU is the place, where the actual execution of the instruction takes place, during the data processing operations. All arithmetic operations such as add, subtract, multiply and divide are performed in this unit. All complex operations are performed using repetitive the above functions. The logic section are main function of logic operation such as work to do data.

Types of Cores in CPU

  1. Single-Core: – Single core CPU are old type of cpu. First of all, this type cpu are used. Single core cpu only do one task at a time. But if we use multitasking work than it is not possible in this. If we run more than one application in this its performance very low and it hanged. First single core cpu invented by intel in March 1971 which was Intel 4004. 
  • Dual Core – Dual core is a CPU that has two cores processor. It is merge with two processors and it own cache and controller, on a single integrated circuit. Dual-core processors are worse situation when the computer user is multitasking work. In this case processor doing switch back and forth between two or more sets of data execution and programs. The CPU resources are consumed and performance suffers. In a dual core processor, each core manages incoming data continuously to improve the efficiency of a processor. Dual core working is when one core is executing than another can be executing it’s on program that attaining its overall higher speed.
  • Quad core: –  Quad Core CPU is a multi-core CPU design built in which it has 4 cores. Quad-core processors combined two dual-core processor a single processor. Like dual core it split workload into a two cores inside it, same as quad core has more quantity to do a multitasking work. It means quad core do single program 4 times faster. This type of processor is use for heavy work like Video editing, playing high-end games, animation designing like task if you have to do simultaneously than this CPUs are worth for those user.

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