WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Artificial Intelligence is a simulation of human intelligence process by machines which are programmed to think like a human and do work. This work especially in a computer system. Artificial Intelligence is a simulation of human intelligence process by machines which are programmed to think like a human and do work. This work especially in a computer system.
HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
The term Artificial Intelligence introduced by John McCarthy he was an American scientist and his first research about AI which was at Dartmouth College in 1956 during a conference at the workshop. Those people who had come to participate in further research are the leaders of A.I research for decades.
In 1958 AI programming language Lisp was developed John McCarthy he also published the paper “Programs with Common Sense”. The paper introduced speculative Advice Taker, a complete AI system can learn from the ability to experience as effectively as humans do.
TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
We can clearly see some changes had come because of AI and we will see many more in future. AI technology are classified by their capability to copy human characteristics.
Types of AI depends on the level of intelligence fix in a robot. We can categorize AI into three different types.
- Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
- Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
- Artificial Superintelligence (ASI)
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)
Artificial narrow Intelligence (ANI) also known as narrow AI or weak AI. This is the only type of AI which we have successfully realized to date. This are very good to doing one specific function, which is quite prevalent today.
Artificial narrow intelligence is only type of Artificial Intelligence out of three intelligence which is currently around. Scientists are doing their best to invent all sorts of technology.
There are many examples of AI some of this are like Google Assistant, Siri, Alexa and Cortana.
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
Artificial Narrow Intelligence is a machine which would be capable to think like a human, and have a capacity to perform any task perfect as human do.
We can see AI in movies, in which human interact with machine and operating system that are sentient, conscious, and driven by self-awareness and emotion.
AGI is expected to be able to reason, solve problems make judgements under uncertainty, learn, plan, imaginative, integrate prior knowledge in decision making, be innovative and creative.
AGI doesn’t exist, but we can see them in future. AGI is still emerging field and Worldwide researchers are focusing on developing AGI machines.
Artificial Superintelligence (ASI)
Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) will surpass humans in all characteristics from creativity, to general, to problem solving. Machines will be capable of exhibiting intelligence that we haven’t seen in the brightest among us. This is a type of AI that many people are worried about, and the type of AI that people like Elon Musk think will lead to the extinction of human race.
But according to researchers, ASI would be achievable only after the Artificial General Intelligence (AGI).
Engineers and scientist are still trying to reach a point where computers could be said to have the same cognitive as a human.
Artificial Intelligence Based on functionality
- Reactive Machines
It is one of the basic types of AI. It doesn’t store memories or past memory information for future actions. Some of the best examples of reactive machines are: – Google AlphaGo and IBM.
- Limited Memory
It can use past experiences to inform signal of future coming decision. Some of the best example is self-driving car use sensors to take immediate decisions like identify that peoples are crossing the road, lanes, traffic signals , speed limit and so on which make better safe driving decisions and save from future accidents.
- Theory of Mind
It is the one of the most advanced type of Artificial Intelligence. It should understand the human emotions, people believe and we able to socially connect like human. But this type of AI machines are not developed, but researchers are making such type of hard work and improvements for developing AI machines.
It is the future of AI. Where the machines will be superintelligence and have their own consciousness and self-aware. This type of technology may proceed great initiative towards world of AI technology to develop superintelligent which is might be possible . But great geniuses like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking is again and again warned us about the evolution of AI which is might dangerous for human.